After studying chemistry at the École Normale Supérieure, a renowned high school in Paris, Dr Axel Marchal joined the University of Bordeaux to undertake a doctorate in oenology. His PhD thesis, supervised by Professor Denis Dubourdieu and defended in 2010, focused on the molecular basis of the sweet taste of dry wines. Since 2013, Axel has been Associate Professor in Oenology at the Institute of Vine and Wine Sciences. In charge of various training courses, his teaching covers wine tasting, winemaking and wine composition. His research activities are mainly aimed at identifying the determinants of wine taste, as well as the aromas specific to great Chardonnay wines. In parallel with these academic functions, Axel has been a consultant in oenology since 2016, in association with Valérie Lavigne and Christophe Ollivier, for several properties in Bordeaux and other vineyards in Europe. Axel will address Sweetness of dry wines: from molecular origin to practical monitoring on Tuesday in Session 7.